The primary function of winter clothing is to protect oneself from the natural environmental, the research is about the designing and developing of winter jacket. The winter jackets are often having a good water resistance, and multiple layers of fabrics to protect and insulate against low temperature. The design and development of the protective clothing is critical because it involves the selection of appropriate textile materials and strategies for their use individually and collectively, so that the protective clothing causes minimal physical stress on the wearer while effectively protecting him from cold and allowing him to attend to his combat duties. During winter season the demand for winter jackets are high. The research is mainly focused for peoples in Jammu and Kashmir. Following the advent of synthetic fibers, the usage of acrylic and polyester fibers in various forms was developed for use in cold protection apparel. The material used to make cold weather protective clothing is chosen with the goal of minimizing heat loss from the body to the environment, so that metabolic heat generated by the body is not lost to the environment and instead keeps the body warm. The research is mainly focused on peoples in Jammu and Kashmir. The average temperature in Jammu and Kashmir, India is 13.5 degrees Celsius (56.3 degrees Fahrenheit). The range of average monthly temperatures is 21.6 °C (38.9 °F), which is below mild. The mean daily temperature varies/ranges by 12.5 °C (22.4 °F).
The Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, which is located in the Himalayas, is divided into three climatic regions: Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh. The winter capital is Jammu, whereas the summer capital is Srinagar. Precipitation occurs throughout year, and no month is unusually dry. July is the warmest month (mean lowest temperature 16 °C, mean maximum temperature 32 °C), while December–January is the coldest (mean minimum temperature 15 °C, mean maximum temperature 0 °C).
The Kashmir Valley has a more moderate temperature than the rest of India’s plains, yet the weather is variable. The record high temperature is 33 degrees Celsius, while the record low is 18 degrees Celsius. After years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and cold temperatures (winter storm) stunned the valley on the 5th and 6th of January 2012, burying everything in a thick layer of snow and ice. In recent years, the Valley has experienced a rise in relative humidity and yearly precipitation. This is most likely due to commercial afforestation operations, which also include the expansion of parks and green cover. Winters in Jammu and Kashmir begin in December with fresh snowfall and last until the end of March, with January being the coldest month. Temperatures in January typically range from -2 degrees Celsius to 12 degrees Celsius.
CLOTHING STYLE OF PEOPLES IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR DURING WINTER SEASON
During the winter, Kashmir transforms into a snowy landscape. This occurs between the middle of December and the beginning of March. The valley is blanketed in snow, and the winters are extremely cold. Pack heavy woolens such as cardigans, pullovers, sweaters, trench coats, socks, caps, mufflers, warmers, earmuffs, and gloves if visiting the Kashmir Valley during these months. Keep water-resistant jackets on hand in case of emergency. Bring snow boots that aren’t prone to slipping on the snow. Snow boots can also be rented in major tourist areas in Kashmir. Additionally, travelers should remember to bring a waterproof bag to keep their money and electronics dry when it snows.
TOP MOST LAYER – POLYESTER FABRIC
Polyester is a chemical phrase made up of poly, which means numerous, and ester, which is a basic organic chemical component. Polyester is made mostly from ethylene, which is obtained from petroleum. The polymer, or chemical building block of polyester, in this method is ethylene, and the chemical process that makes the completed polyester is called polymerization. Polyester can be produced in a variety of ways. The one chosen is determined on the final form of the polyester. Filament, staple, tow, and fiberfill are the four primary types. Each individual strand of polyester fiber in the filament form is continuous in length, resulting in smooth-surfaced fabrics. Filaments are cut to short, present lengths in staple form. Polyester is easier to combine with other fibers in this form. Tow is a method of drawing continuous threads loosely together.
During the winter, polyester can keep you warm and dry. Polyester is an all-weather fabric due to its weave and manufacturing technique. Outside weather, level of activity, and how hot or chilly you are generally influence whether you choose a thick multi-layered single item or a thin shell over other layers. Polyester is combined with various natural and synthetic fibers to create a range of textiles and weaves. Polyester's qualities and manufacturing methods affect whether it is used in the winter or summer. In this article, we'll look at how polyester is used in winter apparel and outdoor equipment, and why it's one of the greatest materials for keeping warm in the cold. Polyester is excellent at trapping your body heat. This is due to the fact that polyester is made up of incredibly tiny plastic threads. To keep the weather out, the treads can be tightly woven together, left as loose insulating fluff, or loosely woven to allow air and moisture to pass through.
The multiple polyesters work together to keep the outside temperatures out and the warmth your body produces in. In other words, polyester is only as warm as your body allows it to be. What you wear to be warm will vary tremendously depending on where you live, how harsh your winters are, and how warm or chilly you generally are. If you reside somewhere with mild winters, a polyester shell will suffice. What you wear to be warm depends a lot on where you live, how harsh your winters are, and how warm or cold you are in general. A polyester shell will suffice if you live somewhere with moderate winters. Even in milder winters, if you're always cold, you might want to go for something heavier. If you're prone to overheating, a polyester shell or fleece jacket would be ideal. You must also consider the wind chill. While polyester will keep you warm in temperatures as low as 20°F, the wind will make it feel much colder, so grab something heavier to wear underneath. Polyester, in general, does a fantastic job at keeping you warm. Polyester will trap your body heat between you and the cloth as long as you stay warm. However, if you remain warm for too long, you may begin to sweat. Polyester of the same grade that keeps you warm also lacks breathability, causing you to sweat. Sweat is supposed to cool you down, but drenching yourself in it isn't the best method to stay warm. The breathability of polyester is determined by the type of material used. To avoid this problem, wear a moisturewicking fabric that is closest to your body, such as a loosely woven polyester undershirt or long underwear. When combined with a cotton layer, polyester draws moisture away from your skin and into the cotton layer, where it may evaporate. Polyester, on the other hand, may trap moisture against your body when worn alone. The tightly 26 woven fabric of polyester is particularly water-resistant, making it ideal for use in the snow. Having snow close to your body, even if simply a thin layer of polyester clothing, will make you cold.
PET polyester's chemical structure. The PET repest unit has a molecular weight of 192. Polyester fibers have a similar morphological structure to polyamide fibers, as both are polymeric fibers generated by a melt spinning and drawing process. Polyester fibers have a structure that is partially orientated and partially crystalline, similar to polyamide fibers. The crystallinity of pulled polyester fiber is typically around 55%. Polyester fibers have a glass transition temperature of around 70°C and a melting point of between 255 and 270°C. The polyester fiber has a density of 1.39 g/cc. Polyester fibers are hydrophobic and have a moisture re-absorption value of only 0.4 percent. Polyester fibers are water repellent and quick drying due to their hydrophobicity. Polyester fibers have a high tensile strength., Stretching resistances, there is very little shrinking, are resistant to wrinkles., Abrasion resistance is great, Simple to maintain, Chemical resistance is a term used to describe a person's ability, Mildew resistance. Polyester fibers have a tenacity of 0.4-0.5N/tex and a break elongation of 15-25 percent. Polyester fibers have a lower initial extensibility than nylon fibers, but their overall tensile behavior is similar to nylons.
INNER MOST LAYER – SILK
Silk is one of the most gorgeous fabrics available, with a long and colorful history and a variety of modern applications. Silk is used for a wide range of purposes, including clothing, medical applications, home design, and Sericulture is the name given to the process of making silk. It all starts with the rearing of silkworms, which, despite their name, are actually larvae that turn into moths rather than worms. Fibroin is a protein fiber formed by silkworm larvae during their cocoon stage.
It is made up of a continuous filament produced by the salivary glands of the silkworm. more. Silk fibers spun from silkworm cocoons have an inner layer of fibroin and an exterior layer of servicing. A lengthwise striation of two fibroin filaments of 10-14m cach embedded in sericin runs the length of each raw silk thread. Silk fibroin accounts for 75-83 percent of the chemical composition, sericin for 17-25 percent, waxes for 1.5 percent, and others for 1.0 percent. Silk fibers are biodegradable and extremely crystalline, with a well-aligned structure, stronger tensile strength than glass or synthetic organic fibers, excellent elasticity, and durability. The thermal breakdown temperature of silk fiber is over 1500°C, yet it is generally stable up to 140°C. Silk fiber densities range from 1320 to 1400 kg/m3 with sericin and 1300-1380 kg/m3 without sericin.
Silk weaving looms must be standardized in order to produce high-quality fabric in widths that are acceptable in international markets. Shuttle looms can weave silk fabrics quickly, and a high-speed machine guarantees that the warp and weft are of great quality. The number of knots, as well as their cleanliness and cohesiveness, are all crucial factors. Silk weaving has undergone significant modifications in recent years, both in terms of the 21 usage of modern looms and weaving technology. Silk fabrics are now effectively woven using sophisticated shuttle less looms like Rapier and Air jet, which have computerized Jacquard and Dobby attachments for generating intricate motifs.
INNER MOST LAYER – COTTON FABRIC
Cotton is the most widely used natural fiber, accounting for over 90% of all natural fibers. From both the agricultural and manufacturing perspectives, the most common is one of the most important natural textile fibers in crops. It is the world's largest producer of garments as well as apparel, such as home furnishings, and industrial products. China, the United States, India, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan are the world's leading cotton producers. Turkey and Brazil, which together account for more than 80% of global cotton production. Cotton comes in a range of kinds, each with its own peculiarities in terms of planting and processing. Cotton fibers can be divided into three broad categories based on staple length (the average length of the fibers that make up a sample or hale of cotton) and appearance.
After ginning and mechanical cleaning, raw cotton fiber includes typically 90% or more cellulosic and Nano celluloses. The structure and composition of cellulose and Nano cellulose logics are both affected by cotton variety and growing conditions. The cuticle, the main epithelial wall, and the lumen are where the no cellulosic elements of the fiber are found. Cotton fibers with a high surface area to linear density ratio typically contain more no cellulosic content. Proteins, amino acids, and other nitrogen-containing compounds, wax, pectic substances, organic acids, sugars, inorganic salt, and a minor number of pigments are among the no cellulosic ingredients. Variances in these elements happen as a result of differences in fiber maturity, cotton varietal, and environmental conditions (soil, climate, farming practices, etc.). The cellulose content of the fiber is over 99 percent after treatments to eliminate naturally occurring no cellulosic elements. Cotton lint of high quality has a variety of physical qualities, some of which are measurable and others which are not. The absence of certain hazardous chemicals is also a sign of high-quality lint. The higher the strength, the more processing activity the fiber can withstand without being damaged, which influences the end-tenacity, product's durability, and quality. Because yarn strength is determined not only by individual fiber strength but also by fiber-to-fiber interactions caused by length, friction, and degree of twist, breaking bundles of parallel fibers has been found to provide a better prediction of yarn strength or tenacity by simulating the combination of fiber strength or tenacity and interaction. The tenacity of cotton bundles varies from around 17 can/tex for short coarse cottons to about 43 cN/tex for long fine cottons. Cotton tenacity or strength increases with moisture content and decreases with temperature in general.
Cotton maturity is an important property: the higher the maturity, the stronger and thicker the fiber or the higher the linear density, which is usually associated with better dye ability, processing ease, and overall product quality. Micron ire is a common maturity test that evaluates both maturity and fineness. The usefulness of the microware resides in its ability to anticipate issues that may arise during the procedure.
Cotton has a poor elasticity when compared to other fibers, with only 3-7 percent elongation. Cotton fiber, like other vegetable fibers, has a low durability, therefore pure cotton items wrinkle readily and do not recover well from wrinkling. Cotton fiber is softer and less stiff than most other vegetable fibers because it is finer.
NATUTAL DYE USED- MADDER ROOT
Madder (genus Rubia) is a genus of over 80 perennial plants in the Rubiaceae family, many of which have been used as dye sources in the past. Madder species can be found in the Mediterranean, Asia, Africa, and the Americas, among other places.
Whorls of lance-shaped leaves covered with clinging hairs and clusters of little yellowish flowers define the plants. Madder species produce a variety of phytochemicals, including quinone derivatives, which are of interest to pharmaceutical researchers.
Madder contains one of the most complex groups of substances of any dye plant–more than twenty compounds are contained in the plant. Alizarin, the organic dye found in the madder plant, creates the crimson red we associate with madder. However, there are yellow and purple colorants in the chemical mix, which is why madder produces such a wide variety of naturally-dyed colors.” “Madder is one of our most ancient dyes–the universal red. Cotton textiles from the Indus civilization date to around 3000 B.C. A madderdyed belt was found in Tutankhamun’s grave and archaeologists have unearthed madder-dyed fabrics in ancient China. The Andean cultures of Paracas and Nasca used the domestic madder plant Relbunium long before cochineal. Throughout history, madder has most often been used on wool and cotton, as silk was considered so precious it could only be dyed with cochineal.
Winter jacket keeps us warm without making feel like the abominable snowman .A winter jacket is also essential for someone who runs hot and cold or frequently goes from inside to outside because it allows you to readily adjust to temperature variations. As we enter the twenty-first century, also known as the era of ecological environment, the term "environmentally friendly" is gaining popularity in all fields. This is the result of widespread recognition that the ecological environment's problem is directly related to our survival. Natural dyeing is currently gaining popularity because it is more environmentally friendly than synthetic dyes and seeks the functional aspect of natural dyeing, which has benefits such as high functionality, high sensitivity, and natural colour expression.
People frequently wear coats when going outside in the winter. Coats keep us warm due to the material they are made of. The three-layered jacket keeps our body to generate heat, which the material helps to trap and prevent from escaping into the air. Cotton fabric lacks in absorption and has good deodorising properties, so dyeing with Madder root improves its properties drastically. When dyed with madder root, the fabric's absorption, deodorising, and antibacterial properties improved to a great extent. Thus, making winter jacket. The dyeing process with madder root is both natural and sustainable. As designers, we must consider sustainability as priority while designing.